- 25 YEARS OF THE POLISH SOCIETY FOR STEREOLOGY
25 years history of the Polish Society for Stereology is summarized by a person playing active role in the Society from the very beginning till now. Formation and growth of the society is described with emphasize to some milestones in the Society history. This paper is the first attempt to summarize the activity of this scientific organization.
- THE CAPILLARY PATTERN IN HUMAN MASSETER MUSCLE DURING AGEING
Erika Cvetko, Jiří Janáček, Lucie Kubínová, Ida Eržen
The effect of ageing on the capillary network in skeletal muscles has produced conflicting results in both, human and animals studies. Some of the inconsistencies are due to non-comparable and biased methods that were applied on thin transversal sections, especially in muscles with complicated morphological structures, such as in human masseter muscle. We present a new immunohistochemical method for staining capillaries and muscle fibres in 100 µm thick sections as well as novel approach to 3D visualization of capillaries and muscle fibres. Applying confocal microscopy and virtual 3D stereological grids, or tracing capillaries in virtual reality, length of capillaries within a muscle volume or length of capillaries adjacent to muscle fibre per fibre length, fibre surface or fibre volume were evaluated in masseter muscle of young and old subjects by an unbiased approach. Our findings show that anatomic capillarity is well maintained in masseter muscle in old subjects; however, vascular remodelling occurs with age, which could be a response to changed muscle function and age-related muscle fibre type transformations.
- STEREOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF BRAIN MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGES OF SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS
Amani Abdelrazag Elfaki, Abdelrazag Elfaki, Tahir Osman, Bunyamin Sahin, Abdelgani Elsheikh, Amira Mohamed, Anas Hamdoun, Abdelrahman Mohammed
Advances in neuroimaging have enabled studies of specific neuroanatomical abnormalities with relevance to schizophrenia. This study quantified structural alterations on brain magnetic resonance (MR) images of patients with schizophrenia. MR brain imaging was done on 88 control and 57 schizophrenic subjects and Dicom images were analyzed with ImageJ software. The brain volume was estimated with the planimetric stereological technique. The volume fraction of brain structures was also estimated. The results showed that, the mean volume of right, left, and total hemispheres in controls were 551, 550, and 1101 cm³, respectively. The mean volumes of right, left, and total hemispheres in schizophrenics were 513, 512, and 1026 cm³, respectively. The schizophrenics’ brains were smaller than the controls (p < 0.05). The mean volume of total white matter of controls (516 cm³) was bigger than the schizophrenics’ volume (451 cm³), (p < 0.05). The volume fraction of total white matter was also lower in schizophrenics (p < 0.05). Volume fraction of the lateral ventricles was higher in schizophrenics (p < 0.05). According to the findings, the volumes of schizophrenics’ brain were smaller than the controls and the volume fractional changes in schizophrenics showed sex dependent differences. We conclude that stereological analysis of MR brain images is useful for quantifying schizophrenia related structural changes.
- MULTICLASS PATTERN RECOGNITION OF THE GLEASON SCORE OF PROSTATIC CARCINOMAS USING METHODS OF SPATIAL STATISTICS
Torsten Mattfeldt, Paul Grahovac, Sebastian Lück
The Gleason score of a prostatic carcinoma is generally considered as one of the most important prognostic parameters of this tumour type. In the present study, it was attempted to study the relation between the Gleason score and objective data of spatial statistics, and to predict this score from such data. For this purpose, 25 T1 incidental prostatic carcinomas, 50 pT2N0, and 28 pT3N0 prostatic adenocarcinomas were characterized by a histological texture analysis based on principles of spatial statistics. On sectional images, progression from low grade to high grade prostatic cancer in terms of the Gleason score is correlated with complex changes of the epithelial cells and their lumina with respect to their area, boundary length and Euler number per unit area. The central finding was a highly significant negative correlation between the Gleason score and the Euler number of the epithelial cell phase per unit area. The Gleason score of all individual cases was predicted from the spatial statistical variables by multivariate linear regression. This approach means to perform a multiclass pattern recognition, as opposed to the usual problem of binary pattern recognition. A prediction was considered as acceptable when its deviation from the human classification was no more than 1 point. This was achieved in 79 of these 103 cases when only the Euler number density was used as predictor variable. The accuracy could be risen slightly to 84 of the 103 cases, when 7 input variables were used for prediction of the Gleason score, which means an accuracy of 81.5%.
- COLOR SEGMENTATION OF MGG COLORED CYTOLOGICAL IMAGES USING NON LINEAR OPPONENT COLOR SPACES
Hélène Gouinaud, Lara Leclerc
This paper presents a color image segmentation method for the quantification of viable cells from samples obtained after cytocentrifugation process and May Grunwald Giemsa (MGG) coloration and then observed by optical microscopy. The method is based on color multi-thresholding and mathematical morphology processing using color information on human visual system based models such as CIELAB model, LUX (Logarithmic hUe eXtension) model and CoLIP (Color Logarithmic Image Processing) model, a new human color vision based model also presented in this article. The results show that the CoLIP model, developed following each step of the human visual color perception, is particularly well adapted for this type of images.
- THE EULER NUMBER FROM THE DISTANCE FUNCTION
We present a new method to obtain the Euler number of a domain based on the tangent counts of concentric spheres in ℝ³ (or circles in ℝ², with respect to the center O, that sweeps the domain. This method is derived from the Poincaré-Hopf Theorem, when the index of critical points of the square of the distance function with respect to the origin O are considered.
- COLLAGE-BASED INVERSE PROBLEMS FOR IFSM WITH ENTROPY MAXIMIZATION AND SPARSITY CONSTRAINTS
Herb Kunze, Davide La Torre, Edward Vrscay
We consider the inverse problem associated with IFSM: Given a target function f, find an IFSM, such that its invariant fixed point f is sufficiently close to f in the Lp distance. In this paper, we extend the collage-based method developed by Forte and Vrscay (1995) along two different directions. We first search for a set of mappings that not only minimizes the collage error but also maximizes the entropy of the dynamical system. We then include an extra term in the minimization process which takes into account the sparsity of the set of mappings. In this new formulation, the minimization of collage error is treated as multi-criteria problem: we consider three different and conflicting criteria i.e., collage error, entropy and sparsity. To solve this multi-criteria program we proceed by scalarization and we reduce the model to a single-criterion program by combining all objective functions with different trade-off weights. The results of some numerical computations are presented. Numerical studies indicate that a maximum entropy principle exists for this approximation problem, i.e., that the suboptimal solutions produced by collage coding can be improved at least slightly by adding a maximum entropy criterion.